* a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor used or the treatment of HIV infection with other antiretrovirals.
* Therapeutic Indications:
– HIV-1 Infection:
VIREAD® is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.
– Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV):
VIREAD is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.
* Pharmacotherapeutic group:
Antiviral for systemic use; nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, ATC code: J05AF07
* Mechanism of action:
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is the fumarate salt of the prodrug tenofovir disoproxil. Tenofovir disoproxil is absorbed and converted to the active substance tenofovir, which is a nucleoside monophosphate (nucleotide) analogue. Tenofovir is then converted to the active metabolite, tenofovir diphosphate, an obligate chain terminator, by constitutively expressed cellular enzymes. Tenofovir diphosphate has an intracellular half-life of 10 hours in activated and 50 hours in resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Tenofovir diphosphate inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the HBV polymerase by direct binding competition with the natural deoxyribonucleotide substrate and, after incorporation into DNA, by DNA chain termination. Tenofovir diphosphate is a weak inhibitor of cellular polymerases ?, ?, and ?. At concentrations of up to 300 µmol/l, tenofovir has also shown no effect on the synthesis of mitochondrial DNA or the production of lactic acid in in vitro assays.
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